The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, probably made in the mid 1480s.It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown (called Venus Anadyomene and often depicted in art). The Birth of Venus, painted by Sandro Botticelli in the 1480s, is one of the most famous paintings in the world: it is a celebrated work of art and the high point of a visit to the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. In 1550 Vasari was himself painting in the villa, but he very possibly visited it before that. We have to remember that the painting today is not as glorious it was initially. For example Poliziano talks of multiple Horae and zephyrs. La nascita di Venere, deutsch: Die Geburt der Venus ist ein Gemälde von Sandro Botticelli. But not only the classical world was the source of Botticelli's work. She is one of the three Horae or Hours, Greek minor goddesses of the seasons and of other divisions of time, and attendants of Venus. Another poem by Politian speaks of Zephyr causing flowers to bloom, and spreading their scent over the land, which probably explains the roses he blows along with him in the painting. Her shoulders, for example, instead of forming a sort of architrave to her torso, as in the antique nude, run down into her arms in the same unbroken stream of movement as her floating hair. The land probably represents either Cythera or Cyprus, both Mediterranean islands regarded by the Greeks as territories of Venus. Although it now seems that the painting was executed for another member of the Medici family, it likely was intended to celebrate and flatter its head, Lorenzo de' Medici. [18], Botticelli's art was never fully committed to naturalism; in comparison to his contemporary Domenico Ghirlandaio, Botticelli seldom gave weight and volume to his figures and rarely used a deep perspectival space. The youthful and voluptuous couple recline in … Influences of religion on Botticelli. Once draped in earthly garments she becomes a personification of the Christian Church which offers a spiritual transport back to the pure love of eternal salvation. Zrození Venuše je obraz namalovaný Sandrem Botticellim, který nejspíše vznikl podobně jako jiný obraz Primavera v období kolem roku 1478 nebo 1483–1486.Na rozdíl od Primavery je zde kompozice pojatá zleva doprava – dvojice letících zefyrů svým dechem ovívá zcela nahou Venuši stojící na mořské lastuře, zatímco na břehu čeká Hóra, aby ji mohla zahalit do pláště. Dempsey uses these identifications. Sandro Botticelli (1445–1510) Alternative navne: Birth name: Allessandro Filipepi Sandro Filipepi Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi Botticelli: Beskrivelse: kunstmaler og kunstner: Fødsels- og dødsdato: 1. marts 1445 17. maj 1510 / 16. maj 1510 Fødsels- og dødssted: Firenze: Firenze: Arbejdssted It is clear that the personifications of the winds are Zephyrus and Aura, one impetuous and the other moderate. In the same way the flowers in the air around Zephyr and on the textiles worn and carried by the Hora evoke the name of Florence.[33]. This hypothesis would seem to be born out by the orange trees in the painting, which are considered an emblem of the Medici dynasty, on account of the assonance between the family name and the name of the orange tree, which at the time was ‘mala medica’. According to the myth, she was born from the foam of the sea, but the painting shows us the moment when she arrives on land. Mohamed is deeply shaken when his oldest son Malik returns home after a long journey with a mysterious new wife. [42] This has not been adopted by Renaissance art historians in general,[43] and it remains problematic, since it depends on the painting being commissioned by the Medici, yet the work is not documented in Medici hands until well into the following century. The painting is in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, Italy. This interpretation takes much that is generally agreed, but Mack goes on to explain the painting as an allegory extolling the virtues of Lorenzo de' Medici. Its size is purely imaginary, and is also found in classical depictions of the subject. [13] The blues of the sea and sky have also lost their brightness. aroused humans to physical love or she was a heavenly goddess who inspired intellectual love in them. Slika je v galeriji Uffizi v [[FirenceFirencah v Italiji. Nașterea lui Venus (Afrodita) (în italiană: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) este o pictură realizată de Sandro Botticelli în anul 1484, aflată la Galeria Uffizi, Florența.Este o reprezentare a zeiței Venus, născută din spuma mării, ca femeie matură (numită Venus Anadyomene).. Ca model i-a servit și în această pictură frumoasa italiană Simonetta Vespucci. The seashell she stands on was a symbol in classical antiquity for a woman's vulva. Most art historians agree, however, that the Birth does not require complex analysis to decode its meaning, in the way that the Primavera probably does. The iconography of The Birth of Venus is similar to a description of a relief of the event in Poliziano's poem the Stanze per la giostra, commemorating a Medici joust in 1475, which may also have influenced Botticelli, although there are many differences. [7] Flora is generally the Roman equivalent of the Greek Chloris; in the Primavera Chloris is transformed into the figure of Flora next to her, following Ovid's Fasti,[8] but it is hard to see that such a transformation is envisaged here. However, the roses blown along with the two flying figures would be appropriate for Chloris. It is in the Galleria Sabauda in Turin. Hemsoll, 13:40; Hartt, 333, Clark, 97 quoted; see also Ettlingers, 134, Clark, 92, 96–97; Lightbown, 160, "the first surviving celebration of the beauty of the female nude represented for its own perfection rather than with erotic or moral or religious overtones. Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi hay là Sandro Botticelli hoặc Il Botticello hoặc ngắn gọn là Botticelli, sinh năm 1445 mất ngày 17 tháng 5 năm 1510, là một họa sĩ người Ý và nhà đồ họa in ấn của những năm đầu thời kỳ Phục hưng. Examples seem to have been exported to France and Germany, probably influencing Lucas Cranach the Elder among others. Alternative identifications for the two secondary female figures involve those also found in the Primavera; the nymph held by Zephyr may be Chloris, a flower nymph he married in some versions of her story, and the figure on land may be Flora. Maalaus esittää Venus-jumalatarta kevätpuutarhassa muiden Kreikan mytologian hahmojen keskellä.. Kevät ja Venuksen syntymä ovat Botticellin tunnetuimmat antiikin tarustoon perustuvista teoksista. • (en) Ernst Gombrich, Symbolic Images. In later life, he was one of Savonarola's followers. This was first suggested by Herbert Horne in his monograph of 1908, the first major modern work on Botticelli, and long followed by most writers, but more recently has been widely doubted, though it is still accepted by some. For Plato – and so for the members of the Florentine Platonic Academy – Venus had two aspects: she was an earthly goddess who A joyous celebration of female sexuality, its journey to worldwide fame was far from straightforward and it lay in obscurity for centuries. The Hora originally had "low classical sandals", and the collar on the mantle she holds out is an afterthought. Mack sees the scene as inspired by both the Homeric Hymn and the ancient paintings. But something more than a rediscovered Homeric hymn was likely in the mind of the Medici family member who commissioned this painting from Botticelli. The real subject of the painting and its meaning is a mystery under discussion. Add a photo to this gallery [25], Although there are ancient and modern texts that are relevant, no single text provides the precise imagery of the painting, which has led scholars to propose many sources and interpretations. Flora is generally the Roman equivalent of the Greek Chloris; in the Primavera Chloris is transformed into the figure of Flora next to her, following Ovid's Fasti, but it is hard to see that such a transformation is envisaged here. [9], The painting is large, but slightly smaller than the Primavera, and where that is a panel painting, this is on the cheaper support of canvas. Various interpretations of the painting rely on this origin for its meaning. Cette image a été retouchée, ce qui signifie qu'elle a été modifiée par ordinateur et est différente de l'image d'origine.Liste des modifications : This image derives from an image which also appears on this page.In this version intensity of the colouration has been lowered overall from the reproduction from which it was derived. In the case of Botticelli's Birth of Venus, the suggested references to Lorenzo, supported by other internal indicators such as the stand of laurel bushes at the right, would have been just the sort of thing erudite Florentine humanists would have appreciated. There are differences to Botticelli's usual technique, working on panel supports, such as the lack of a green first layer under the flesh areas. As depictions of subjects from classical mythology on a very large scale they were virtually unprecedented in Western art since classical antiquity, as was the size and prominence of a nude female figure in the Birth. Samantha Roddick explores the enduring appeal of Botticelli's masterpiece The Birth of Venus, one of the most celebrated paintings in western art. It is entirely without that quality so much prized in classical art, known as aplomb; that is to say, the weight of the body is not distributed evenly either side of a central plumb line. Bellingham, David, "Aphrodite deconstructed: Botticelli's "Venus and Mars" in the National Gallery, London", in Brill's Companion to Aphrodite, Eds Amy C. Smith, Sadie Pickup, 2010, BRILL, ISBN 9047444507, 9789047444503, google books Another interpretation of the Birth of Venus is provided here by its author, Charles R. Mack. Pliny went on to note that Apelles' painting of Pankaspe as Venus was later "dedicated by Augustus in the shrine of his father Caesar." Both have wings. They are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the Italian Renaissance; of the two, the Birth is better known than the Primavera. Giving added support to this interpretation of Botticelli as a born-again Apelles is the fact that that very claim was voiced in 1488 by Ugolino Verino in a poem entitled "On Giving Praise to the History of Florence."[44]. C This article has been rated as C-Class on the project's quality scale. Simonetta was possibly born in the Ligurian seaside town of Portovenere ('the port of Venus'). Botticelli made consistent use of the circular tondo form and did many beautiful female nudes, according to Vasari. It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown (called Venus Anadyomene and often depicted in art). In later years hostility between the two branches of the family became overt. It has long been suggested that Botticelli was commissioned to paint the work by the Medici family of Florence, perhaps by Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici (1463–1503) a major patron of Botticelli, under the influence of his cousin Lorenzo de' Medici, "il Magnifico". Although relations were perhaps always rather tense between the Magnifico and his young cousins and wards, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco and his brother Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, it may have been politic to commission a work that glorified the older Lorenzo, as some interpretations have it. Most art historians agree, however, that the Birth does not require complex analysis to decode its meaning, in the way that the Primavera probably does. El a pint'e para riba un cocolishi, pasobra ta bisa cu Venus a nace na lama. Es stellt die Göttin Venus dar. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page, where you can join the discussion and see a list of open tasks. The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, probably made in the mid 1480s. Lorenzo, furthermore, is not only magnificent but, as was Alexander in Pliny's story, also magnanimous, as well. Once again, Botticelli, in his version of the Birth of Venus, might be seen as completing the task begun by his ancient predecessor Apelles, even surpassing him. Alternative identifications for the two secondary female figures involve those also found in the Primavera; the nymph held by Zephyr may be Chloris, a flower nymph he married in some versions of her story, and the figure on land may be Flora. The sea brings forth Venus just as the Virgin gives birth to the ultimate symbol of love, Christ. The hair of Venus and the flying couple was changed. While Botticelli might well have been celebrated as a revivified Apelles, his Birth of Venus also testified to the special nature of Florence's chief citizen, Lorenzo de' Medici. Rojstvo Venere (italijansko: Nascita di Venere) je slika italijanskega umetnika Sandra Botticellija, verjetno narejena sredi 1480-ih.Upodablja boginjo Venero, ki je na obrežje prispela po rojstvu, ko je iz morja izstopila popolnoma odrasla (imenovana Venera Anadiomena in pogosto upodobljena v umetnosti). [37], Having a large standing female nude as the central focus was unprecedented in post-classical Western painting, and certainly drew on the classical sculptures which were coming to light in this period, especially in Rome, where Botticelli had spent 1481–82 working on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. Botticelli obviously read classical texts before painting it: for example, the Roman writer Plinio made the description of the painting by the Greek artist Apelles that showed Venus rising from the sea or a Homeric hymn that told about Zephyrus that blows his wind on Aphrodite. Botticelli represented the Neoplatonic idea of divine love in the form of a nude Venus.[28]. Botticielli produced the image of a beautiful naked woman, with a gaze that is remarkably in direct engagement with the viewer. Unfortunately, we do not know for sure which Medici it was painted for, or which location it was originally hung in. Its size is purely imaginary, and is also found in classical depictions of the subject. Recent scholars prefer a date of around 1484–86 on grounds of the work's place in the development of Botticelli's style. The floral decoration of her dress suggests she is the Hora of Spring.[6]. At the start of the 16th century, the painting hung together with Primavera in the country villa of the Medici in Castello. He depicted the scene with a solemnity that recalls a religious rite; the disposition of the characters and their gestures remind representations of the Baptism of Christ, like that of Verrocchio, which Botticelli had certainly seen. The Birth of Venus, painted by Sandro Botticelli in the 1480s, is one of the most famous paintings in the world: it is a celebrated work of art and the high point of a visit to the Uffizi Gallery in Florence.It is also a commercial icon and a line mark of European Art. [47], Botticelli, or more likely his workshop, repeated the figure of Venus in another painting of about 1490. Parts of some leaves at the top right corner, normally covered by the frame, have been less affected. Since then, his paintings have been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. There is a contrast between the title of the work and what it represents: we do not see the moment of Venus’ birth. [5], At the right a female figure who may be floating slightly above the ground holds out a rich cloak or dress to cover Venus when she reaches the shore, as she is about to do. Kevät on kooltaan varsin suuri, noin kaksi metriä korkea ja runsaat kolme metriä leveä. Das Bild befindet sich in den Uffizien in Florenz. While there are subtleties in the painting, its main meaning is a straightforward, if individual, treatment of a traditional scene from Greek mythology, and its appeal is sensory and very accessible, hence its enormous popularity. .... She is not standing but floating. They have been endlessly analysed by art historians, with the main themes being: the emulation of ancient painters and the context of wedding celebrations (generally agreed), the influence of Renaissance Neo-Platonism (somewhat controversial), and the identity of the commissioners (not agreed). Furthermore, the broad expanse of sea serves as a reminder of the Virgin Mary's title stella maris, alluding both to the Madonna's name (Maria/maris) and to the heavenly body (Venus/stella). But in 1975 it emerged that, unlike the Primavera, the Birth is not in the inventory, apparently complete, made in 1499 of the works of art belonging to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco's branch of the family. The closest precedent for the scene is generally agreed to be in one of the early ancient Greek Homeric Hymns, published in Florence in 1488 by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalkokondyles: This poem was probably already known to Botticelli's Florentine contemporary, and Lorenzo di Medici's court poet, Angelo Poliziano. The subject is not strictly the "Birth of Venus", a title given to the painting only in the nineteenth century (though given as the subject by Vasari), but the next scene in her story, where she arrives on land, blown by the wind.